Thursday, October 24, 2013

Research News: Gene mutations, stem cells

Same Mutations in 12 Different Cancers

An article titled

Mutational landscape and significance across 12 major cancer types

appeared in the journal Nature. Researchers at the Washington University in St Louis analyzed data from the The Cancer Genome Project. They  looked at over 3200 tumors in 12 different cancers. They were looking at mutations and insertions/deletions in "breast adenocarcinoma (BRCA), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), colon and rectal carcinoma (COAD, READ), bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA), kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), ovarian serous carcinoma (OV) and acute myeloid leukaemia (LAML; conventionally called AML)  "

In those cancers they noted 127 significantly mutated genes(SMGs) . They found that that TP53 mutation played a roll in serous ovarian cancer , breast and head and neck cancers and feel that a common treatments strategies could be used for these cancers.

Source: Nature
WSJ article  

Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells in Mice

The Cornell Daily Sun recently published the article

Cornell Researchers Find Possible Origin of Ovarian Cancer

about the research of Dr. Alexander Nikitin, professor of pathology. In his research, Dr Nikitin found stem cells in the hilum of mice. "Many other cancers, such as stomach and cervical cancer, are known to originate in junctions between the layers of tissue that cover the organ, according to NikitinThe hilum is an area found between the epithelial cells on the surface of the ovary and the mesothelium cells found inside layers of the ovary. He took these stem cells along with differentiated ovarian cells and inactivated the tumor suppressor genes. He then injected the cells into  health mice.  The stem cells grew aggressive tumors while the ovarian cells grew tumors infrequently. Dr Nikitin is now looking for stem cells in the same region of the ovaries in humans.

Source: The Cornell Daily Sun 

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